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The Effect of Mild-Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Inhibitory Cognitive Control in Youth

Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 10 - 20, 14.06.2022

Öz

Physical and metabolic benefits for physical activity and exercise are well documented in literature. Recently, its effects on executive functions, including complex cognitive processes, have been a subject of interest. Most research on executive functions has focused on short-term effects of physical activity and exercise. There is little published data on long-term benefits on cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mild-moderate aerobic exercise on inhibitory cognitive control in youth. The research was conducted on 13 girls and 17 boys (15 control group, 15 experimental group) participants in the 20-22 age range. In the study, personal information form and the eriksen flanker task test developed by Eriksen and Eriksen (1974) were applied as pretest and post-test. 12-week mild-moderate aerobic exercise intervention was applied to the individuals in the experimental group. The data obtained were analyzed with the JAMOVI (2.2.2.) program. In analyzing the data, descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance and TukeyHSD test was used. When the experimental and control groups were compared, the effect of 12-week mild-moderate aerobic exercise on cognitive control from executive functions was statistically significant (p<0.05). As a result, regular participation in physical activity and exercise in youth contributes positively to inhibitory cognitive control, which is one of the important executive functions.

Kaynakça

  • Álvarez-Bueno, C., Pesce, C., Cavero-Redondo, I., Sánchez-López, M., Martínez-Hortelano, J. A., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2017). The Effect of Physical Activity Interventions on Children's Cognition and Metacognition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(9), 729–738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.06.012
  • Ardoy, D. N., Fernández-Rodríguez, J. M., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Castillo, R., Ruiz, J. R. and Ortega, F. B. (2014). A Physical Education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: The EDUFIT study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(1), e52-e61. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12093
  • Atan, M., Atan, S. ve Arslantürk, Y. (2012). Lisansüstü Araştırmalarda İstatistik Uygulamaları (1st ed.). Ankara: Dama Kitap Yayıncılık.
  • Batouli, S. A. H. ve Saba, V. (2017). At least eighty percent of brain grey matter is modifiable by physical activity: A review study. Behavioural Brain Research, 332, 204–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.06.002
  • Benzing, V., Chang, Y.-K. and Schmidt, M. (2018). Acute Physical Activity Enhances Executive Functions in Children with ADHD. Scientific Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30067-8
  • Berchicci, M., Lucci, G. and Di Russo, F. (2013). Benefits of physical exercise on the aging brain: The role of the prefrontal cortex. Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(11), 1337–1341. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt094
  • Best, J. R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review, 30(4), 331–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2010.08.001Get
  • Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I. and Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/657508
  • Bildiren, A., Korkmaz, M. and Demiral, N. (2017). Üstün yetenekli çocuklarda yönetici işlevler ve zekâ arasındaki ilişkiler. Adıyaman Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 241–255. https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.323919
  • Chang, Y. K., Labban, J. D., Gapin, J. I. and Etnier, J. L. (2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Brain Research. (1453), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068
  • Ciria, L. F., Perakakis, P., Luque-Casado, A. and Sanabria, D. (2018). Physical exercise increases overall brain oscillatory activity but does not influence inhibitory control in young adults. NeuroImage, 181, 203–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.07.009
  • Çolakoğlu, F. F. and Şenel, Ö. (2003). Sekiz haftalık aerobik egzersiz programının sedanter orta yaşlı bayanların vücut kompozisyonu ve kan lipidleri üzerindeki etkileri. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1), 57–61.
  • Dinç, N. and Hayta, Ü. (2018). Sirkadiyen ritmin anaerobik güç üzerine etkisinin incelenmesi. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(4), 77–86. https://doi.org/10.31680/gaunjss.477535
  • Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J. L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., . . . Szabo-Reed, A. N. (2016). Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(6), 1197–1222. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000901
  • Drollette, E. S., Scudder, M. R., Raine, L. B., Davis Moore, R., Pontifex, M. B., Erickson, K. I. and Hillman, C. H. (2016). The sexual dimorphic association of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in children. Developmental Science, 19(1), 90–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12291
  • Duzel, E., van Praag, H. and Sendtner, M. (2016). Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function? Brain, 139(3), 662–673. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awv407
  • Eriksen, B. A. and Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon identification of a target letter in a non-search task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143-149. doi:10.3758/bf03203267
  • Erickson, K. I., Hillman, C. H. and Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.01.005
  • Gentile, A., Boca, S., Şahin, F. N., Güler, Ö., Pajaujiene, S., Indriuniene, V., . . . Alesi, M. (2020). The Effect of an Enriched Sport Program on Children’s Executive Functions: The ESA Program. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 657. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00657
  • Gomez-Pinilla, F. and Hillman, C. (2013). The influence of exercise on cognitive abilities. Comprehensive Physiology, 3(1), 403–428. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c110063
  • Greeff, J. W. de, Bosker, R. J., Oosterlaan, J., Visscher, C. and Hartman, E. (2018). Effects of physical activity on executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(5), 501–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.595
  • Griffin, E. W., Mullally, S., Foley, C., Warmington, S. A., O'Mara, S. M. and Kelly, A. M. (2011). Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males. Physiology and Behavior, 104(5), 934–941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.06.005
  • Hillman, C. H., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., Castelli, D. M., Hall, E. E. and Kramer, A. F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walkıng on cognitıve control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159(3), 1044–1054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.01.057
  • Karvonen, J. and Vuorimaa, T. (1988). Heart rate and exercise intensity during sports activities. Practical application. Sports Medicine, 5(5), 303–311. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198805050-00002 Lee, J., Zhang, T., Chu, T. L., Gu, X. and Zhu, P. (2020). Effects of a fundamental motor skill-based afterschool program on children’s physical and cognitive health outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030733
  • Li, J. W., O'Connor, H., O'Dwyer, N. and Orr, R. (2017). The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(9), 841–848. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.025
  • Loprinzi, P. D., Blough, J., Crawford, L., Ryu, S., Zou, L. and Li, H. (2019). The temporal effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Brain Sciences, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040087
  • Lubans, D., Richards, J., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., . . . Biddle, S. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: A systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1642
  • Ludyga, S., Gerber, M., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E. and Pühse, U. (2016). Acute effects of moderate aerobic exercise on specific aspects of executive function in different age and fitness groups: A meta-analysis. Psychophysiology, 53(11), 1611–1626. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12736
  • Martin, K., Staiano, W., Menaspà, P., Hennessey, T., Marcora, S., Keegan, R., . . . Rattray, B. (2016). Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists. PLoS ONE, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159907
  • Moreau, D., Kirk, I. J. and Waldie, K. E. (2017). High-intensity training enhances executive function in children in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. eLife, 6. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25062
  • Pensel, M. C., Daamen, M., Scheef, L., Knigge, H. U., Rojas Vega, S., Martin, J. A., . . . Boecker, H. (2018). Executive control processes are associated with individual fitness outcomes following regular exercise training: Blood lactate profile curves and neuroimaging findings. Scientific Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23308-3
  • Prakash, R. S., Voss, M. W., Erickson, K. I. and Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical activity and cognitive vitality. Annual review of psychology, 66, 769–797. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015249
  • Salas-Gomez, D., Fernandez-Gorgojo, M., Pozueta, A., Diaz-Ceballos, I., Lamarain, M., Perez, C., . . . Sanchez-Juan, P. (2020). Physical Activity Is Associated With Better Executive Function in University Students. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00011
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Gençlerde Hafif-Orta Şiddetli Aerobik Egzersizin Engelleyici Bilişsel Kontrole Etkisi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 10 - 20, 14.06.2022

Öz

Fiziksel aktivite ve egzersizin fiziksel ve metabolik faydaları güçlü kanıtlarla bilinmektedir. Son zamanlarda karmaşık bilişsel süreçleri içeren yönetici işlevler üzerine sağladığı faydalar araştırma konusu olmuştur. Ancak araştırmaların çoğu kısa süreli egzersizin etkilerine odaklanmıştır. Bilişsel süreçler üzerine uzun süreli egzersizin faydalarını inceleyen sınırlı sayıda çalışma bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, gençlerde hafif-orta şiddetli aerobik egzersizin engelleyici bilişsel kontrol üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırma 20-22 yaş aralığında 13 kız, 17 erkek (15 kontrol grubu, 15 deney grubu) katılımcı üzerinde yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, kişisel bilgi formu ve Eriksen ve Eriksen (1974) tarafından geliştirilen eriksen flanker task testi ön test-son test olarak uygulanmıştır. Deney grubundaki bireylere 12 haftalık hafif-orta şiddetli aerobik egzersiz programı uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen veriler JAMOVI (2.2.2) programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde betimleyici istatistikler kullanılmıştır ve tekrarlı ölçümler varyans analizi ve TukeyHSD testi uygulanmıştır. Deney ve kontrol grupları karşılaştırıldığında 12 haftalık hafif-orta şiddetli aerobik egzersizin engelleyici bilişsel kontrol üzerindeki etkisi anlamlı bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Sonuç olarak genç bireylerde fiziksel aktivite ve egzersize düzenli katılım, engelleyici bilişsel kontrole olumlu katkılar sağlamaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Álvarez-Bueno, C., Pesce, C., Cavero-Redondo, I., Sánchez-López, M., Martínez-Hortelano, J. A., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2017). The Effect of Physical Activity Interventions on Children's Cognition and Metacognition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(9), 729–738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.06.012
  • Ardoy, D. N., Fernández-Rodríguez, J. M., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Castillo, R., Ruiz, J. R. and Ortega, F. B. (2014). A Physical Education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: The EDUFIT study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(1), e52-e61. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12093
  • Atan, M., Atan, S. ve Arslantürk, Y. (2012). Lisansüstü Araştırmalarda İstatistik Uygulamaları (1st ed.). Ankara: Dama Kitap Yayıncılık.
  • Batouli, S. A. H. ve Saba, V. (2017). At least eighty percent of brain grey matter is modifiable by physical activity: A review study. Behavioural Brain Research, 332, 204–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.06.002
  • Benzing, V., Chang, Y.-K. and Schmidt, M. (2018). Acute Physical Activity Enhances Executive Functions in Children with ADHD. Scientific Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30067-8
  • Berchicci, M., Lucci, G. and Di Russo, F. (2013). Benefits of physical exercise on the aging brain: The role of the prefrontal cortex. Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(11), 1337–1341. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt094
  • Best, J. R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review, 30(4), 331–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2010.08.001Get
  • Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I. and Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/657508
  • Bildiren, A., Korkmaz, M. and Demiral, N. (2017). Üstün yetenekli çocuklarda yönetici işlevler ve zekâ arasındaki ilişkiler. Adıyaman Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 241–255. https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.323919
  • Chang, Y. K., Labban, J. D., Gapin, J. I. and Etnier, J. L. (2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Brain Research. (1453), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068
  • Ciria, L. F., Perakakis, P., Luque-Casado, A. and Sanabria, D. (2018). Physical exercise increases overall brain oscillatory activity but does not influence inhibitory control in young adults. NeuroImage, 181, 203–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.07.009
  • Çolakoğlu, F. F. and Şenel, Ö. (2003). Sekiz haftalık aerobik egzersiz programının sedanter orta yaşlı bayanların vücut kompozisyonu ve kan lipidleri üzerindeki etkileri. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1), 57–61.
  • Dinç, N. and Hayta, Ü. (2018). Sirkadiyen ritmin anaerobik güç üzerine etkisinin incelenmesi. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(4), 77–86. https://doi.org/10.31680/gaunjss.477535
  • Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J. L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., . . . Szabo-Reed, A. N. (2016). Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(6), 1197–1222. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000901
  • Drollette, E. S., Scudder, M. R., Raine, L. B., Davis Moore, R., Pontifex, M. B., Erickson, K. I. and Hillman, C. H. (2016). The sexual dimorphic association of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in children. Developmental Science, 19(1), 90–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12291
  • Duzel, E., van Praag, H. and Sendtner, M. (2016). Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function? Brain, 139(3), 662–673. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awv407
  • Eriksen, B. A. and Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon identification of a target letter in a non-search task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143-149. doi:10.3758/bf03203267
  • Erickson, K. I., Hillman, C. H. and Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.01.005
  • Gentile, A., Boca, S., Şahin, F. N., Güler, Ö., Pajaujiene, S., Indriuniene, V., . . . Alesi, M. (2020). The Effect of an Enriched Sport Program on Children’s Executive Functions: The ESA Program. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 657. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00657
  • Gomez-Pinilla, F. and Hillman, C. (2013). The influence of exercise on cognitive abilities. Comprehensive Physiology, 3(1), 403–428. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c110063
  • Greeff, J. W. de, Bosker, R. J., Oosterlaan, J., Visscher, C. and Hartman, E. (2018). Effects of physical activity on executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(5), 501–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.595
  • Griffin, E. W., Mullally, S., Foley, C., Warmington, S. A., O'Mara, S. M. and Kelly, A. M. (2011). Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males. Physiology and Behavior, 104(5), 934–941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.06.005
  • Hillman, C. H., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., Castelli, D. M., Hall, E. E. and Kramer, A. F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walkıng on cognitıve control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159(3), 1044–1054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.01.057
  • Karvonen, J. and Vuorimaa, T. (1988). Heart rate and exercise intensity during sports activities. Practical application. Sports Medicine, 5(5), 303–311. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198805050-00002 Lee, J., Zhang, T., Chu, T. L., Gu, X. and Zhu, P. (2020). Effects of a fundamental motor skill-based afterschool program on children’s physical and cognitive health outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030733
  • Li, J. W., O'Connor, H., O'Dwyer, N. and Orr, R. (2017). The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(9), 841–848. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.025
  • Loprinzi, P. D., Blough, J., Crawford, L., Ryu, S., Zou, L. and Li, H. (2019). The temporal effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Brain Sciences, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040087
  • Lubans, D., Richards, J., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., . . . Biddle, S. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: A systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1642
  • Ludyga, S., Gerber, M., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E. and Pühse, U. (2016). Acute effects of moderate aerobic exercise on specific aspects of executive function in different age and fitness groups: A meta-analysis. Psychophysiology, 53(11), 1611–1626. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12736
  • Martin, K., Staiano, W., Menaspà, P., Hennessey, T., Marcora, S., Keegan, R., . . . Rattray, B. (2016). Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists. PLoS ONE, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159907
  • Moreau, D., Kirk, I. J. and Waldie, K. E. (2017). High-intensity training enhances executive function in children in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. eLife, 6. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25062
  • Pensel, M. C., Daamen, M., Scheef, L., Knigge, H. U., Rojas Vega, S., Martin, J. A., . . . Boecker, H. (2018). Executive control processes are associated with individual fitness outcomes following regular exercise training: Blood lactate profile curves and neuroimaging findings. Scientific Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23308-3
  • Prakash, R. S., Voss, M. W., Erickson, K. I. and Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical activity and cognitive vitality. Annual review of psychology, 66, 769–797. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015249
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Yasin ALTIN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Sivas Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi
0000-0002-5854-8007
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 29 Mart 2022
Kabul Tarihi 8 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Altın, Y. (2022). Gençlerde Hafif-Orta Şiddetli Aerobik Egzersizin Engelleyici Bilişsel Kontrole Etkisi . Sivas Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 3 (1) , 10-20 . Retrieved from http://cuspor.cumhuriyet.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/70284/1095107